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Device Tables Synchronization

Ioto Device Tables takes the pain out of synchronizing device data into the cloud. It automatically and transparently synchronizes data between your devices and the cloud.

The database synchronization is full-duplex in that data can be modified in the device or in the cloud and it will be replicated to the other side. The synchronization is controllable on a per-table basis.


The Ioto service creates an AWS DynamoDB database table called ioto in each device cloud. The ioto database table contains the device data and cloud management data for all connected devices in that cloud.

Similarly, the Ioto device agent creates a local embedded database to hold structured data for the device.

These two databases are connected and Ioto replicates changes between device and cloud to keep them in sync.

Why Synchronization?

The Ioto Database Synchronization service dramatically eases the task of centralizing the data management of a pool of devices. Each device can store data locally and it will be transparently, efficiently and automatically replicated to the cloud. Once in the cloud, it can be easily interrogated and queried for analytics, operational control and intelligence.

Each side has fast, predictable local access to the data. Coupled with reliable replication semantics you can work locally while Ioto takes care of the replication.

How It Works

To replicate cloud-side data, the Ioto service uses AWS DynamoDB streams to capture modifications made to the table data. The stream is connected to an Ioto service Lambda running in your AWS account that transports the updates via MQTT messages to a special topic that is only known to the specific device.

The Ioto device agent subscribes to this topic and receives MQTT messages containing the changed data. The agent then applies those changes to the local database.

In reverse, the Ioto agent registers a database trigger that is called whenever local changes are made to the device's database. When the trigger is invoked, the agent sends an MQTT message with the changes to the Ioto service that updates the cloud database.

Ioto keeps track of the last update sent and received and will retransmit lost updates.

When a device is rebooted after being offline, it sends a "sync" message to the Ioto service to retrieve all changes made to the cloud database since the last change notification was received from the cloud. In this way, changes made while the device is offline are not lost.

Controlling Replication

The Ioto DynamoDB table (ioto) and the Ioto agent database both use a OneTable schema that defines how items are stored, what indexes are used and the application models (entities). For example:

const DeviceSchema = {
    control: {
            Where the model is enabled (cloud, device, both. Default is both)
            Synchronization direction. Up to the cloud, down or both. Default is none.
        Status:  { enable: 'cloud' },
        Fault:   { sync: 'up' },
    models: { },
The control property of the schema defines the tables that are replicated and in which direction the replication flows.

For each model (entity) in the schema, you can create an entry in the control property that specifies if items of that model should exist and how they should be replicated.

The enable property can be set to "cloud" if items of that type should exist only in the cloud database. Set the property to "device" if the items should exist only in the device. Set to "both" if they should exist in both databases. The default is "both".

The sync property defines the synchronization direction. Set to "up" to indicate the device data should be synchronized from the device up to the cloud. Set to "down" to indicate the cloud data should be replicated down to the device and set to "both" to replicate in both directions.

To design for effective synchronization, it is best to have the "sync" direction be either "up" or "down" and not "both". You should only select "both" for models that are not transactionally critical, as changes from the cloud or device may overwrite changes coming from the other directions.

Synchronization is done on a per-item basis and not field by field. This means that if you update a field in an item, the entire item will be updated on the peer side.